Jews apparently settled in Olšany immediately after their expulsion from Vienna and lower Austria in 1670. A Jewish community was founded during the 18th century, but it was discontinued in 1890 due to its low number of members.
The quarter with Jewish houses is located in the northeastern part of the town and consisted of only eight houses, including the former wine distillery No. 20. All houses are preserved as reconstructions. The synagogue was built as a in the 18th century but burned down in 1928.
The Jewish cemetery was founded at the end of the 18th century on a hill between two fields 500 meters east of the village along the road to Heřmaneč. The last burials took place at the end of the 1930’s. There are about 150 tombstones preserved from the end of the 18th century until 1938 on an area covering 849 square meters. The entrance used to be a smaller passage leading through a stone morgue, of which only traces of the perimeter walls remain today. The cemetery is freely accessible.