The oldest written record of Jews in the town dates back to the 17th century. In 1724 and 1783 there were 14 Jewish families in Rožmberk, in 1849 there were 23 families (130 persons, evidently the most in the town’s history), in 1880 there were 53 Jews (3.6% of all inhabitants), 1900 there were 47 Jews (4.0%), and in 1930 there were only 12 Jews (1.2%).
Jewish houses were concentrated near the Vltava River at the foot of the castle hill from an unknown time. To date, only the two houses No. 102 and 104 are preserved from the original four Jewish houses. The last synagogue, probably built at the end of the 17th century, served for worship until 1938; it was adapted for residential purposes during the Second World War, then abandoned and demolished after 1966. Information about the establishment of an old Jewish cemetery differs. Some historians claim that it was founded in the 17th century, others that it already took place in the 15th century. This Jewish cemetery is located on the southern edge of the left river bank of the town and is adjacent to the inner side of the town walls. Some historic tombstones were already destroyed under Nazi occupation, then after 1945 about half of them were stolen. The remaining tombstones, 45 of them, are now unsuitably located in a garden that belongs to house No. 103 and is enclosed within a gated wall. The oldest of them date from the middle of the 18th century. The cemetery is locked.
The new Jewish cemetery of the Rožmberk Jewish community was founded in 1883 beside the road running along the left bank of the Vltava River from Rožmberk nad Vltavou to Český Krumlov. The last burial here was a for member of the Holzbauer family in 1950. After 1945, the cemetery area was reduced and the ceremonial hall was demolished. A total of one hundred tombstones has been preserved over an area of 2,290 square meters, the oldest one dating back to 1883. The cemetery is freely accessible.
Interesting: By the middle of the 19th century, there was very active contact between the Jews of Rožmberk and Linz; Jews from Linz in Upper Austria were allegedly buried in the old Jewish cemetery in Rožmberk.